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If you haven't got the quest yet, find Bedoli in Rito Village. She sings you the first half of a song, which you'll need to repeat to Bedoli's sister Laissa, who you can find in a hut nearby.
Now you know the full song: "The pride of the Rito, pillar in the sky, its heart lights up when the sun is high, the heart shines upon a path not whole, but a warming flame can stir its soul."
Wait until just midday, and head to this point. Don't miss the Korok hiding under the rock:
Looking south, you should see a heart-shaped hole in the shadow cast by Rito Village. At about 12:40pm, you'll see a platform start to glow in the sun.
Glide over and use a flame arrow to "stir its soul" and reveal the Bareeda Naag shrine.
There are two cannons inside. The first is necessary to complete the shrine, and the second is optional yet worthwhile, as it reveals a chest with a diamond inside.
Drop your round bombs into the cannons, and time your detonation to get your shots through the moving obstacles and onto the target.