Energy

High-performance flow battery could rival lithium-ions for EVs and grid storage

High-performance flow battery ...
PNNL's high performance zinc-polyiodide flow battery approaches the performance of some lithium-ion batteries (Image: PNNL)
PNNL's high performance zinc-polyiodide flow battery approaches the performance of some lithium-ion batteries (Image: PNNL)
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PNNL's high performance zinc-polyiodide flow battery approaches the performance of some lithium-ion batteries (Image: PNNL)
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PNNL's high performance zinc-polyiodide flow battery approaches the performance of some lithium-ion batteries (Image: PNNL)
As with all flow batteries, energy is stored in two external tanks, which makes it easy to scale up battery capacity (Image: PNNL)
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As with all flow batteries, energy is stored in two external tanks, which makes it easy to scale up battery capacity (Image: PNNL)

A new redox flow battery designed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) more than doubles the amount of energy that this type of cell can pack in a given volume, approaching the numbers of lithium-ion batteries. If the device reaches mass production, it could find use in fast-charging transportation, portable electronics and grid storage.

A flow battery is formed by two liquids with opposite charge (electrolytes) which turn chemical energy into electricity by exchanging ions through a membrane. The electrolytes are stored in two external tanks and this makes the system easy to scale up, potentially very quick to charge (the electrolytes can simply be replaced) and resistant to extreme temperatures. These perks have already inspired some radical concept car designs but if these dreams are going to come to fruition, flow batteries will need to get over one big hump: currently, the best flow cell out there only packs less than a third of the energy per unit volume as a lithium-ion battery.

Because of this, flow cells are mainly used where space is not at a premium, such as to store large amounts of energy from renewable sources in open spaces. Still, even in this arena, a more energy-dense flow cell could turn out to be very useful, improving the reliability of the electric grid in a tight urban setting, and perhaps even challenging the upcoming lithium-ion home batteries announced by Tesla.

PNNL researchers led by Wei Wang have now developed a prototype, high-performance zinc-polyiodide flow battery with a high energy density of 167 Wh/l (watt-hours per liter), a number that could almost double to 322 Wh/l with further optimizations.

This is a significant step up from the state-of-the-art 70 Wh/l zinc-bromide flow batteries and means that, 40 years after being invented, the performance of these cells could finally catch up with that of the now ubiquitous lithium-ion batteries. For comparison, lithium iron phosphate batteries, a type of lithium-ion battery used in portable electronics and some small EVs, put out about 233 Wh per liter.

Aside from being able to store more energy in a smaller space, the zinc-polyiodide battery is also reportedly safer than other flow batteries through the absence of acidic electrolytes, it’s non-flammable, and it can operate at ranges of -4 to 122 °F (-20 to 50 °C), meaning it doesn’t require extensive cooling circuitry that take up extra weight and room (like in Tesla’s Model S battery pack).

Before the battery can see mass production, the researchers will need to address the issue of a zinc build-up that grew from the negative electrode and permeated through the membrane, reducing the battery’s efficiency. Wei and team contained the problem by adding alcohol to the electrolyte, and are now experimenting with scaling up the battery size in order to conduct further testing.

The advance is described in an open-access Nature Communications paper.

Source: PNNL

6 comments
Paul Maher
Hi, My understanding is that the volume of fluid necessary to power an automobile is on the order of 200 gallons. Have these systems been able to increase their efficiency so as to reduce their weight?
notarichman
the article mentions "replacing" the battery electrolytes. However it doesn't mention whether the battery is capable of recharging. almost useless if not rechargable.
Ryan Gibbons
@notarichman think about it like a liquid swappable battery. You don't charge the battery your self. It gets filled up by liquid replacement electrolytes, like a petrol car.
Sándor Dávid Papp
@notarichman: Yes, the flow battery is rechargeable, but offers a "liqud swap" feature. However, the flow battery alone is useless for vehicle drives, as it has relatively low specific power. You must use an additional high-power battery or ultracapacitor to handle accelerations and recuperative braking. This low-power characteristics of flow battery comes from the relatively small active area of the cell, wich is the main concept of the flow battery (e.g. only a small fraction of the active material is present between the electrodes). Because of it, flow batteries suffer from all problems of fuel cells. Hence, at least in the next decade, I see no reason to use it in vehicles.
VirtualGathis
The active area is adjustable. It would probably require an ultra-capacitor to handle burst loads like acceleration, but a flow battery could handle the average load. If they can get the volume down to match the best lithium ion batteries it would begin offering advantages of battery swapping with the advantage of not having to depend on universal form factors and having to manage large physical batteries at the swapping site. Adding the ability to handle flow battery "swapping" would be as simple as adding a modular system on site that manages the fluids automatically, and enables the swap to take as long as a normal fill up. The electrolytes are rechargeable so it would be as friendly as regular batteries. As far as comparing them to fuel cells the primary reason fuel cells have not caught on is due to the use of platinum group metals. The fuel cell stack in the Honda FC costs more than $100K(us) since it is literally made of platinum. I've never seen any flow cells that are dependent on platinum group metals so I'm confused how a fuel cell and a flow cell are even remotely comparable.
telocity
"energy density of 167 Wh/l (watt-hours per liter)" Does that mean 2 liters would be sufficient to power a 250w Bicycle motor for 1 hour+? Because that would be awesome, probably less than 6lbs in liquid weight. I'm probably getting the math wrong though.