Materials

2D material absorbs electromagnetic waves for superior shielding

2D material absorbs electromag...
An atomic model of titanium carbonitride, shielding electronics from electromagnetic interference
An atomic model of titanium carbonitride, shielding electronics from electromagnetic interference
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An atomic model of titanium carbonitride, shielding electronics from electromagnetic interference
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An atomic model of titanium carbonitride, shielding electronics from electromagnetic interference

Electromagnetic interference can be a serious problem for electronic devices, so shielding is usually placed around components. Now, engineers at Drexel University have found that a 2D material called titanium carbonitride is an excellent shielding material, thanks to its ability to absorb rather than reflect electromagnetic waves.

Between such common technologies as radio, television, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and cellular phone networks, electromagnetic signals are everywhere. But with the air waves this crowded, electronic devices are exposed to a lot of interference, which can weaken connections, slow down data transfer speeds, and overall impact the function of devices.

To prevent this, engineers build shielding materials into devices, surrounding vital components. These are often thin-film metal foils like copper, which reflect the errant signals back into the air. Although they do the job, these materials can add unwanted bulk to a device.

In the quest for shielding materials with a smaller footprint, the Drexel researchers stumbled upon titanium carbonitride. It belongs to a class of two-dimensional materials called MXenes, which have previously been shown to be useful in making conductive clays, sprayable antennas, and electrodes that could boost battery recharge speeds.

In this case, the team found that sheets of titanium carbonitride, much thinner than human hair, were able to block electromagnetic interference between three and five times better than copper foil.

But the material proved even more useful. The team found that titanium carbonitride actually absorbs the signals rather than reflecting them back out. That means they end up reducing the overall noise in the environment.

"This is a much more sustainable way to handle electromagnetic pollution than simply reflecting waves that can still damage other devices that are not shielded," says Kanit Hantanasirisakul, an author of the study. "We found that most of the waves are absorbed by the layered carbonitride MXene films. It's like the difference between kicking litter out of your way or picking it up — this is ultimately a much better solution.”

Thanks to this absorbing ability and its innate thinness, the team says that titanium carbonitride could be used to wrap components individually in a device, preventing them from interfering with each other even in close proximity.

The research was published in the journal Science.

Source: Drexel University via Phys.org

5 comments
Ralf Biernacki
The energy doesn't disappear: this material must get heated by the EM radiation it absorbs. Taking into account the tiny power flux in most EM signals, this shouldn't be a problem where the material gets to replace conventional metal foil shielding; but using it to cover individual circuit components, like the article suggests, could possibly end up frying them.
AryehZelasko
What happens to the absorbed energy? It does not just disappear. If it become heat, it will cause other problems.
mediabeing
COOL! So in the future, we'll see our cars with paint that has this new stuff in it. It will be applied as a pre-coat, likewise to various semiconductor containers. Let's see it in house paint, cellphone shells, etc. At about that point, we'll find out it's super carcinogenic. Whoopee.
May all go right.
Username
It may be very thin but it's not 2D
editjim
If this material does indeed absorb electromagnetic energy, why can't it be used to gather all the electromagnetic radiation we are bombarded with and use it to power devices etc... There are antennas that gather certain frequencies but this seems like it covers all electromagnetic energy...