Space

War of the Worlds: Curiosity fires first laser shot on Mars

Artist's concept of Curiosity using laser (Image: NASA)
Artist's concept of Curiosity using laser (Image: NASA)
View 14 Images
Artist's concept of Curiosity;s mast with ChemCam on top (Image: NASA)
1/14
Artist's concept of Curiosity;s mast with ChemCam on top (Image: NASA)
Artist's concept of Curiosity showing its robotic arm deployed (Image: NASA)
2/14
Artist's concept of Curiosity showing its robotic arm deployed (Image: NASA)
Portrait of Curiosity and horizon (Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP)
3/14
Portrait of Curiosity and horizon (Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP)
Self-portrait of Curiosity, highlight its nuclear power system (rear) (Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP)
4/14
Self-portrait of Curiosity, highlight its nuclear power system (rear) (Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP)
Mount Sharp near the landing site showing the different geological areas (Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP)
5/14
Mount Sharp near the landing site showing the different geological areas (Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP)
Calibration target used to test Curiosity's cameras (Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP)
6/14
Calibration target used to test Curiosity's cameras (Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP)
Close up of ChemCam (Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP)
7/14
Close up of ChemCam (Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP)
Area of suture Curiosity exploration (Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP)
8/14
Area of suture Curiosity exploration (Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP)
Curiosity landing site and Gelnelg (Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP)
9/14
Curiosity landing site and Gelnelg (Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP)
Image of Coronation after laser shot (Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP)
10/14
Image of Coronation after laser shot (Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP)
Layout of Curiosity (Image: NASA)
11/14
Layout of Curiosity (Image: NASA)
Rock N165, also known as Coronation (Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP)
12/14
Rock N165, also known as Coronation (Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP)
Example of ChemCam spectra graph (Image: NASA)
13/14
Example of ChemCam spectra graph (Image: NASA)
Artist's concept of Curiosity using laser (Image: NASA)
14/14
Artist's concept of Curiosity using laser (Image: NASA)

NASA’s Mars rover Curiosity has fired its laser for the first time. Its target wasn’t attacking Martians, but a 7 cm (2.75 inch) wide rock called “Coronation” (AKA N165) about 10 feet (3 m) from the rover. Curiosity’s laser fired 30 pulses over a ten-second interval, hitting Coronation with one million watts for five-one billionths of a second. As tiny bits of Coronation vaporized into a glowing plasma, Curiosity's ChemCam analyzed the stone’s makeup by means of a telescope and three spectrometers. The laser shot was part of Curiosity’s three-week shakedown before starting its two-year mission to explore the Red Planet. The firing on Sunday August 19 was “target practice,” but the spectral analysis will also help scientists to determine if the laser is blasting just rock or any dust covering the stone as well. This is the first time that such a laser experiment has been conducted on another planet.

The laser is part of Curiosity’s ChemCam system. It’s a suite of instruments housed partly on top of the rover’s mast and includes a telescope, the laser and a remote micro-imager. A fiberoptic cable runs from the mast down to the three spectrometers inside the rover used to analyze the vaporized rocks. From a distance of 23 feet (7 m), ChemCam can identify rocks, determine soil compositions, measure chemical elements present, recognize the presence of ice or water molecules and even provide visual assistance for drilling operations.

ChemCam was developed mainly by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico and the Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements (CESR), Toulouse, France.

Curiosity landing site and Gelnelg (Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP)
Curiosity landing site and Gelnelg (Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP)

On the move

In addition to the laser firing, Curiosity, which landed in Gale Crater on Mars on August 5 after a dramatic landing maneuver, is also preparing to move under its own power for the first time. The first movements will be fairly modest, involving only turning the rover’s wheels from side to side. Then Curiosity will roll one rover-length, which is about 10 feet (3 m), turn 90 degrees, and then reverse about 7 feet (2 m). Once system checks are complete, Curiosity will set off for an area designated “Glenelg”, about 1,300 feet (400 m) southeast of the landing site. This was chosen because Glenelg is the intersection of three kinds of terrain with layered bedrock that makes a very good place to begin drilling operations to study the Martian geography.

"We're about ready to load our new destination into our GPS and head out onto the open road," says Curiosity Project Scientist John Grotzinger of the California Institute of Technology. "Our challenge is there is no GPS on Mars, so we have a roomful of rover-driver engineers providing our turn-by-turn navigation for us."

It’s a very tricky exercise made more difficult by the fact that Mars doesn’t have a magnetic field, so even a good old-fashioned compass isn’t available. But at least the Curiosity team can take comfort in having the first robot explorer with a genuine ray gun.

The ChemCam video below is from the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Source: NASA

ChemCam rock laser for Mars Science Laboratory "Curiosity"

4 comments
kaustubhan
congratulations to NASA. Driving around must be fun - No magnetic field, no GPS. How about the robot drilling a hole and installing an old-fashioned flag pole, and using it as an origin (X,Y position set to zero ) ?
Slowburn
Navigation without a compass is not difficult when you have constant landmarks and can count your steps. Especially if you happen to have a laser range finder.
kellory
Inertial tracking, matched with visual landmarks from overhead mapping while in orbit. Then it's just vector and distance. (just like any Boy Scout) followed by corrections from known stars as seen from mars. Let it update it's own map as it goes. As an old Boy Scout, that would be how I would do it. ;)
PG
MY GOD!!! They're invading Glenelg! I live in South Australia where Glenelg is a seaside tourist spot. I guess it doesn't matter HOW you spell it, so if curiosity makes it there, it won't matter if it's backwards or forwards.
Thanks for reading our articles. Please consider subscribing to New Atlas Plus.
By doing so you will be supporting independent journalism, plus you will get the benefits of a faster, ad-free experience.