Good Thinking

PureMadi filters clean water and create jobs in the third world

PureMadi filters clean water a...
PureMadi project leaders James Smith and Dr. Rebecca Dillingham
PureMadi project leaders James Smith and Dr. Rebecca Dillingham
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Some of the PureMadi filters, ready to go
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Some of the PureMadi filters, ready to go
A local worker forming one of the filters
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A local worker forming one of the filters
The MadiDrops are composed of the same materials as the filters, but take the form of tablets that are simply dropped into untreated water
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The MadiDrops are composed of the same materials as the filters, but take the form of tablets that are simply dropped into untreated water
A coating of silver nanoparticles is applied to each filter
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A coating of silver nanoparticles is applied to each filter
A batch of MadiDrops
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A batch of MadiDrops
A new batch of the filters being rinsed off
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A new batch of the filters being rinsed off
PureMadi filters on their way to market
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PureMadi filters on their way to market
PureMadi project leaders James Smith and Dr. Rebecca Dillingham
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PureMadi project leaders James Smith and Dr. Rebecca Dillingham

Silver is known for its antibacterial qualities, and has thus found its way into water filters created at institutions such as Stanford and McGill universities. Given that these filters are often used in developing nations, however, it would be nice if they could also contribute to the local economy – instead of being just one more thing that’s brought in from outside. Well, that’s just the idea behind the University of Virginia’s PureMadi filters and MadiDrops.

The two devices were created as part of the university’s PureMadi program, for use in South African communities that have little if any access to clean water – the Tshivenda South African word for water is “madi.” Leading the program is civil/environmental engineer James Smith, and Dr. Rebecca Dillingham.

The filter resembles a flower pot, and is used to both mechanically remove particulate matter from the water, and to kill microbes within it. The devices are made by the villagers, starting with a mixture of locally-sourced clay, sawdust and water. That mix is pressed into a mold, then fired in a kiln.

A local worker forming one of the filters
A local worker forming one of the filters

The firing process burns up the sawdust, leaving fine pores within the ceramic material – those pores are large enough to allow water molecules to soak through at a rate of three liters (0.8 US gallons) per hour, but small enough to trap most particles. A coating of silver (or copper) nanoparticles is then painted onto the surface of the filter, to kill bacteria.

In use, one of the flowerpot filters is simply placed over a 5-gallon (19-liter) bucket, then untreated water is poured into the filter. By the time it has trickled through into the bucket, a reported 99.9 percent of all the pathogens within it have been either trapped or killed. Trace amounts of the nanoparticles make it into the treated water, that are reportedly “within the safe water standards of the developed world.”

The more recently-developed MadiDrop is composed of the same materials as the filters, but takes the form of a tablet that is simply dropped into a bucket of untreated water. Its silver nanoparticles then go to work killing microbes in the water. Although the tablet does nothing in the way of filtration, it should be cheaper, easier to manufacture and use, and less awkward to transport than the filters. This, in turn, means that it should find use with a larger number of people.

A batch of MadiDrops
A batch of MadiDrops

One filter should remain effective for two to five years, while the MadiDrops last for about six months.

Local workers are currently employed at a factory in Limpopo province, making the filters. “Eventually that factory will be capable of producing about 500 to 1,000 filters per month, and our 10-year plan is to build 10 to 12 factories in South Africa and other countries,” said Smith. “We plan to eventually serve at least 500,000 people per year with new filters.”

The filters and tablets could also find use in first world nations, in rural areas where municipally-treated water is scarce.

More information on the PureMadi program is available in the video below.

Source: University of Virginia

PureMadi James Smith

5 comments
Bob Stuart
It is discouraging to wade through this whole presentation, and not find out what size of sawdust particles are used. "Wood Flour" as used for resin mixes seems a more likely candidate to try first.
Adam Michaels
I think these new tablets will be great for people who love the outdoors. Although, it may not be a permanent water purification method for people who need potable water in the wilderness, it would serve as a great backup tool.
Kwazai
I'd always wondered about 'recycled' clear plastic bottles. solar. steel wool inside to catch the heat. 140F ? also wondered about evaporative coolers built like food dehydrators. is it silver iodide like what they seed clouds with to make it rain?
notarichman
sounds great !!! if the nanoparticle "paint" is also manufactured locally. i can't imagine that happening without outside influence. if available now; then why just south africa? there are a lot of 3rd world civilizations around the world. so is this a "for profit" venture? if not; then how do we get the plans to use elsewhere?
yrag
VERY clever! Nice work James Smith, Dr. Rebecca Dillingham and the whole PureMadi team! Good luck!