Aircraft

X-48C Blended Wing Body aircraft flight testing campaign comes to a close

X-48C Blended Wing Body aircra...
The remotely operated X-48C Blended Wing Body aircraft lifts off Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., on its first test flight Aug. 7, 2012 (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
The remotely operated X-48C Blended Wing Body aircraft lifts off Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., on its first test flight Aug. 7, 2012 (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
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The flight testing campaign of the X-48C came to a close with the 30th and final flight of the Blended Wing Body research aircraft (Photo: Boeing)
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The flight testing campaign of the X-48C came to a close with the 30th and final flight of the Blended Wing Body research aircraft (Photo: Boeing)
The X-48C Hybrid Wing Body aircraft flies over Rogers Dry Lake on Feb. 28, 2013 (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
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The X-48C Hybrid Wing Body aircraft flies over Rogers Dry Lake on Feb. 28, 2013 (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
The Boeing – NASA X-48C Hybrid Wing Body aircraft flies over one of the runways laid out on Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
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The Boeing – NASA X-48C Hybrid Wing Body aircraft flies over one of the runways laid out on Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
The long boom protruding from between the tails is part of the aircraft's parachute-deployment flight termination system (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
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The long boom protruding from between the tails is part of the aircraft's parachute-deployment flight termination system (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
The NASA-Boeing X-48C Hybrid/Blended Wing Body research aircraft banks left during one of its final test flights (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
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The NASA-Boeing X-48C Hybrid/Blended Wing Body research aircraft banks left during one of its final test flights (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
The manta ray-like shape of the X-48C Hybrid Wing Body aircraft is obvious in this underside view (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
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The manta ray-like shape of the X-48C Hybrid Wing Body aircraft is obvious in this underside view (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
Boeing Phantom Works technicians prepare the sub-scale X-48C Hybrid / Blended Wing Body technology demonstrator for its first test flight (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
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Boeing Phantom Works technicians prepare the sub-scale X-48C Hybrid / Blended Wing Body technology demonstrator for its first test flight (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
A small television camera seen through the left front window of the sub-scale X-48C Hybrid / Blended Wing Body aircraft provides visual reference to the pilot of the remotely piloted technology demonstrator (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
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A small television camera seen through the left front window of the sub-scale X-48C Hybrid / Blended Wing Body aircraft provides visual reference to the pilot of the remotely piloted technology demonstrator (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
Two 89-pound-thrust turbojet engines housed in larger nacelles are one of the major modifications in the "C" version of the X-48 Hybrid / Blended Wing Body research aircraft (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
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Two 89-pound-thrust turbojet engines housed in larger nacelles are one of the major modifications in the "C" version of the X-48 Hybrid / Blended Wing Body research aircraft (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
The remotely operated X-48C Blended Wing Body aircraft lifts off Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., on its first test flight Aug. 7, 2012 (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
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The remotely operated X-48C Blended Wing Body aircraft lifts off Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., on its first test flight Aug. 7, 2012 (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
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The flight testing campaign of the X-48C Blended Wing Body (BWB, aka Hybrid Wing Body) research aircraft kicked off on August 7, 2012, at NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center. Eight months later the campaign has come to a close with the 30th and final flight carried out on April 12. NASA plans to use the data gathered over the campaign to aid in the design of future “green” airliners that are quieter and more fuel-efficient than conventional aircraft, while Boeing is touting the design's potential military applications.

Unlike flying wing designs such the Stealth Bomber that lack a definitive fuselage, BWB designs have separate wing structures that are smoothly blended into a flattened and airfoil-shaped body. The purpose of the recently-completed flight testing campaign was to establish base data relating to the lift, stall and spin characteristics of the BWB design that promises increased fuel economy and range due to the entire aircraft contributing to lift generation.

The manta ray-shaped X-48C began life as one of two 8.5 percent scale remotely piloted X-48B aircraft built by UK-based Cranfield Aerospace Ltd. from a design developed by Boeing Phantom Works working in cooperation with the NASA Langley Research Center. This resulted in a remote-controlled propeller-driven BWB model that was first flown in 1997.

The Boeing – NASA X-48C Hybrid Wing Body aircraft flies over one of the runways laid out on Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
The Boeing – NASA X-48C Hybrid Wing Body aircraft flies over one of the runways laid out on Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)

In an effort to reduce the X-48B’s noise profile and study its low speed stability its wingtip winglets were moved inboard on either side of the engines – effectively turning them into twin tails – its fuselage was extended at the rear by about two feet (0.6 m), and its three 50-pound thrust jet engines were replaced with two 89-pound thrust engines. The result was the X-48C, which boasts the same 21-foot (6.4 m) wingspan and approximate 500 lb (227 kg) weight as the X-48B that made 92 flights between 2007 and 2010.

In the evolution from X-48B to X-48C, the aircraft’s flight control system software was also modified to account for the different handling qualities of the two models. The team says this enabled a stronger and safer prototype flight control system that is suitable for future full-scale commercial blended wing aircraft.

All of the campaign’s 30 flights were conducted at NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base in California. Most flights of the X-48C lasted around 30 minutes and saw the aircraft reach speeds of up to 140 mph (225 km/h) and attain an altitude of about 10,000 feet.

The manta ray-like shape of the X-48C Hybrid Wing Body aircraft is obvious in this underside view (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)
The manta ray-like shape of the X-48C Hybrid Wing Body aircraft is obvious in this underside view (Photo: NASA / Carla Thomas)

"We have accomplished our goals of establishing a ground-to-flight database, and proving the low speed controllability of the concept throughout the flight envelope," said Fay Collier, manager of NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation project. "Very quiet and efficient, the hybrid wing body has shown promise for meeting all of NASA's environmental goals for future aircraft designs."

"Working closely with NASA, we have been privileged throughout X-48 flight-testing to explore and validate what we believe is a significant breakthrough in the science of flight – and it has been a tremendous success for Boeing," added Bob Liebeck, a Boeing Senior Technical Fellow and the company's BWB program manager.

While NASA believes a BWB design could be seen in future passenger aircraft 20 years from now, Boeing has its eyes on military applications such as aerial refueling and cargo missions. Both Boeing and NASA plan to continue to develop BWB technology with Boeing hoping to develop of a larger-scale, transonic BWB demonstrator in the future.

Sources: Boeing, NASA

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14 comments
Slowburn
That looks like a very good shape for a surface to orbit aerospace plane.
Fritz Menzel
Could be lots of passenger/cargo room in this kind of shape. Bio-mimmickry seems to have many applications, not to mention beauty.
Charlie Nudelman
"... what we believe is a significant breakthrough in the science of flight.." which differs from this?: http://www.mysteriesofcanada.com/images/burnelli_vjb_1951.jpg (from the 50´s...)
Mark A
Everything old is new again.
Jon A.
The problem with a blended wing airliner is that hardly anyone would get a window seat, as most of the space is deep in the interior of the airframe. Maybe you could just give everyone touchscreens linked to cameras. On the other hand, if everyone got their own small cabin, I wouldn't care that it didn't have a window. That would be awesome on a 17 hour flight.
Jon A.
Charlie: It's different from a flying wing in that it has a distinct nose and tail. Or at least, they protrude from the wing so some extent. That probably makes it more stable than a flying wing. The position of the engines is also significant, as they would help to improve lift and reduce engine noise inside the aircraft. They would also possibly be easier to service on the ground if the mechanics could simply stand on the flat top of the plane.
Gadgeteer
Window seats are overrated, considering how small airliner windows are. With most airliner seats having their own flatscreens today, it would really not be difficult to just pipe live video from external cameras to them on demand. The real problems are the heretofore unknown handling qualities of a BWB and the fact that a pressurized, flattened body is less structurally efficient than a traditional cylindrical fuselage.
Stephen N Russell
Base plane for 797 Boeing IF scaled up? wider than 747.
Dave B13
Ditto Charlie Nudelman above: Sherman, Set the wayback machine to: Burnelli's first monoplane, the CB-16, appeared in 1928 ... The airfoil fuselage section, which provided 50 percent lift at cruising speed, housed the passenger cabin and the pilot's and mechanic's compartments. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burnelli_UB-14 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vincent_Burnelli http://www.combatreform.org/goodbyeftr.htm
Charlie Nudelman
Jon A: The Brunelli design its not a fliying wing (like de Horten o the Northrop) Is a lift body, like the MIG prototype. And Burnelli Aircraft have patents about it. More info in: http://www.burnelliaircraft.com/wp/history