Health & Wellbeing

Intermittent fasting no better for weight loss than just counting calories

Intermittent fasting no better...
Over a year, a trial saw no significant differences between straightforward calorie restriction and a time-restricted feeding strategy
Over a year, a trial saw no significant differences between straightforward calorie restriction and a time-restricted feeding strategy
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Over a year, a trial saw no significant differences between straightforward calorie restriction and a time-restricted feeding strategy
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Over a year, a trial saw no significant differences between straightforward calorie restriction and a time-restricted feeding strategy

In one of the longest trials of its type ever conducted researchers have found limiting food intake to a short period of time every day is no more effective a dietary strategy than simple calorie counting. The year-long experiment ultimately found calorie restriction to be the most important part of any weight loss plan.

Over the last decade fasting diets have increased in popularity, with advocates claiming they are the most effective way to lose weight and improve metabolic health. This dietary strategy can take a variety of forms, from alternate-day fasting (such as eating every other day, or fasting for a whole day once or twice a week) to time-restricted feeding (where eating is limited to a span of a few hours every day).

This new research focused specifically on a type of time-restricted feeding informally known as the 16:8 diet, which involves limiting all food intake to an eight-hour period every day. In this case the trial limited its fasting cohort to eating only between 8 am and 4 pm.

The trial recruited 139 subjects, all either overweight or obese but otherwise healthy. The cohort was randomly split into two groups: one group tasked with a time-restricted feeding strategy and another that could eat at any time. Both groups were required to limit their caloric intake each day: men no more than 1,800 calories and women no more than 1,500 calories. The trial lasted 12 months.

Restricting the calorie intake of both groups allowed the researchers to home in on the particular weight loss or metabolic outcomes of time-restricted feeding. Prior studies had floated the possibility that some of the benefits of fasting diets were due to the regime simply reducing a person’s overall calorie intake, so this trial looked to focus on whether fasting 16 hours every day had any specific benefits.

From baseline to 12 months the study found those in the time-restricted feeding group lost 9 percent of their body weight. This compared to a 7.2 percent drop in the all-day eating group. The researchers point out this difference is not statistically significant and concluded weight loss seems to be primarily driven by calorie restriction, and is not affected by time-restricted feeding patterns.

“In addition, time-restricted eating and daily calorie restriction produced similar effects with respect to reductions in body fat, visceral fat, blood pressure, glucose levels, and lipid levels over the 12-month intervention period,” the researchers write in the new study. “These results indicate that caloric intake restriction explained most of the beneficial effects seen with the time-restricted-eating regimen.”

The researchers are cautious to note these findings are subject to a number of limitations, so this study should not be interpreted as saying all kinds of intermittent fasting methods are useless. There may still be benefits in time-restricted feeding strategies for individuals with habitual eating patterns that span large stretches of a 24-hour period. And, time-restricted eating could be helpful in those with pre-existing metabolic or cardiovascular problems.

One strength of time-restricted feeding often raised by advocates is that it is an easy dietary strategy to maintain over long periods of time. While this trial showed similar high retention rates in both groups it is important to note all participants were strongly monitored and coached throughout the 12-month stretch.

So it may be true that in real-world conditions it is easier for people to follow a 16:8 plan compared to more general calorie restrictions. However, the findings do affirm that those engaging in time-restricted feeding strategies should still limit their calorie intake. Eating whatever you want for eight hours every day and then fasting for 16 will not help you lose weight.

The new study was published in The New England Journal of Medicine.

6 comments
6 comments
Markjon
If 7.2% reduction in body weight is the same as 9%, then the study's margin of error is so large that the study itself is flawed. I'd like to know who paid for this study. It seems to me that it actually shows that the intermittent fasters got more bang for their calories.
David F
From several years' use of time restricted feeding, my own benefit has been elimination of hunger pangs between meals, including no more tendency to snack in the evening. But weight loss? No. Only by reducing intake of empty-caloried food and drink, thus moving to low-GI diet, have I been able to reduce body fat.
windykites
This seems to be a rather confusing study. As Markjon points out, there is quite a large difference, so the title of the article is misleading. Surely, the calorie intake of the two groups should be closely monitored and compared? Is it what you eat, or when you eat?

This reminds me of: Many types of food are bad for you! Later research says: No they aren't! The current target: Carbs are bad!
michael_dowling
I have been on a TR diet since August 2019,first on a 14/10 fast,and for the last several months,on a 16/8 regimen. Since the start,I have lost ~ 8 lbs,without any modification to my caloric intake. I find it very easy to maintain,as I am not hungry in the morning,and drink black coffee till the fast period is over. Just had my yearly physical & blood work done,so I am interested in the results for reasons other than any weight loss.
AladdinConnolly
From the actual study: "Changes in weight were not significantly different in the two groups at the 12-month assessment".
However using body weight loss percentage seems questionable as body weights differ. The data in the study seems to be all over the place actually. Also the max cal intake does not mean they all actually had the same calorie intake.
Jeff7
16:8 never worked for me - I was just absolutely starving until I ate something in the morning. Easy to stick to? Not sure about that. I have had good results with 5:2 . I only have to watch what I eat for 16 hours each fasting day. Everybody is different.